Conjunction (समुच्चयबोधक) – Definition, Types और Examples

Conjunction Details in Hindi

Conjunction एक ऐसा शब्द है जो दो शब्दों, Phrases, Clauses एवं वाक्यों को जोड़ने का काम करता है, उसे Conjunction कहते है. वाक्य के अर्थ में बिना बदलाव किए हुए वाक्य को छोटा करने के लिए Conjunctions का प्रयोग किया जाता है. 

Or

वह शब्द जो दो शब्दों या वाक्यों को जोड़ता है, उसे Conjunction कहते है. 

A conjunction is a word that joins words, phrases, clauses and sentences together. 

Or

The word which adds two words or sentences is called Conjunction. 

Example:-

  • I like bread and butter. 
  • The frog lives in water and on land.
  • I know that she is intelligent.
  • Mohan is good but his brother is bad. 
  • He is a soldier, yet he is not brave.
  • I have neither a daughter nor a son. 

अवश्य पढ़े,

शब्द-भेद के प्रकार एवं परिभाषा

Preposition का प्रयोग

Verb क्या है एवं प्रयोग

Adverb – क्रिया विशेषण

Kinds of Conjunction (Conjunction के प्रकार)

Conjunction मुख्यतः दो प्रकार के होते है जो इस प्रकार है. 

  1. Co-Ordinating Conjunctions
  2. Sub-Ordinating Conjunctions

1. Co-Ordinating Conjunctions

Co-Ordinating Conjunctions दो समान कोटि या श्रेणी के शब्दों, शब्द-समूहों, वाक्याँशो तथा वाक्यों को जोड़ने का काम करता है उसे Co-Ordinating Conjunctions कहते है. 

Or

जिस Conjunctions के द्वारा समान श्रेणी के शब्दों एवं वाक्यों को जोड़ा जाता है, तो वह Co-Ordinating Conjunctions कहलाता है. 

Co-Ordinate conjunctions join words, phrases, clauses and sentences of equal rank or grammatical units of the same kind. 

Or

The conjunction by which the words or sentences of the equal rank are joined together is called Co-Ordinating Conjunctions

Example:- 

He is poor “but” honest.

She writes rapidly “and” beautifully.

The sun rises in the east “and” sets in the west.

He is the man who earns honestly “and” whose son spends all. 

Mohan is good “but” his friend is bad. 

दिए गए वाक्य में and तथा but का प्रयोग दो Nouns, दो Pronouns, एक Noun और एक Pronoun, दो Adjectives, दो Phrases, दो Adverbs, दो Clauses तथा दो वाक्यों को जोड़ने के लिए किया है. 

कुछ महत्वपूर्ण Co-Ordinating Conjunctions

And, but, or, nor, yet, too, so, as well as, only, then, therefore, no less than, otherwise, else, still, while / whereas, nevertheless, either…or, neither….nor, both…and, not only….but also, etc. Co-Ordinating Conjunctions के उदाहरण है. 

Kinds of Co-Ordinating Conjunctions 

अर्थ के दृष्टिकोण से Co-Ordinating Conjunctions को चार भागों में विभाजित किया गया है. 

  1. Cumulative or Copulative
  2. Alternative or Disjunctive
  3. Adversative
  4. Illative

1. Cumulative or Copulative

ऐसे Conjunctions से दो Statements (कथन) या Facts (तथ्य) को सीधे-सीधे जोड़ दिया जाता है, उन्हें Cumulative or Copulative कहा जाता है. 

And, also, too, now, not less than, as well as, as well, not only….but also, both… इत्यादि Cumulative or Copulative Conjunctions के उदाहरण है. 

Example:-

  • You are rich “and” I am poor.
  • Soni is “both” beautiful “and” intelligent.
  • He “as well as” his brother is guilty.
  • She “no less than” her sister is intelligent.
  • Sanjit went to the cinema, his brother went “too”.
  • Tinku attended the function, his brother “as well”.

2. Alternative or Disjunctive

ऐसे Conjunctions के द्वारा दो कथनों के बिच कोई Alternative या Choice offer किया जाता है, उन्हें Alternative or Disjunctive Conjunctions कहा जाता है. 

Either….or, neither….nor, or, otherwise, else इत्यादि Alternative or Disjunctive Conjunctions के उदाहरण है. 

Example:- 

  • Either you or your brother is guilty.
  • Neither a borrower nor a lender be. 
  • Make haste or you will miss the train.
  • Work hard, otherwise you will fail.

3. Adversative

ऐसे Conjunctions दो कथनों में से एक दुसरे का विरोध व्यक्त करते है, उन्हें Adversative Conjunctions कहते है. 

But, still, yet, nevertheless, however, while, whereas, only इत्यादि Adversative Conjunctions के उदाहरण है. 

Example:-

  • I felt angry but I kept quiet.
  • He is very poor, still, he is content.
  • I had no money, nevertheless, I helped him.
  • Mohan is rich while his brother is poor. 

4. Illative

ऐसे Conjunctions निष्कर्ष या फल बताने के लिए प्रयोग किए जाते है, उन्हें Illative Conjunctions कहा जाता है. 

Therefore, so, for, then, hence, consequently इत्यादि Illative Conjunctions के उदाहरण है. 

Example:- 

  • He was found robbing, so he was arrested.
  • You have not obtained good marks, hence you cannot be admitted.
  • She did not work, so she failed.
  • The days are long, for it is June. 

Note:- 

Conjunction “for” कारण नही बताता है, यह किसी दिए हुए कथन से अनुमान बताने के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है. 

2. Sub-Ordinating Conjunctions 

एक दुसरे के ऊपर आश्रित रहने वाले दो Clause को जो Consjuntion जोड़ता है, वह Sub-Ordinating Conjunctions कहलाता है. 

Sub-ordinating Conjunctions help to join one Independent / Main clause with another Dependent / Sub-ordinate clause. 

कुछ महत्वपूर्ण Sub-ordinating Conjunctions 

That, so that, if, unless, until, in case, till, before, after, so long as, because, why, where, when, while, whether, how, whence, who, which, as if, as soon as, than, as, since इत्यादि Sub-ordinating Conjunctions के उदाहरण है.

Note:- 

Principal clause: वह clause जो पूरा अर्थ प्रदान करता है, अर्थात अपने अर्थ के लिए दुसरे clause पर निर्भर नही करता है, वह Principal Clause कहलाता है.

Interjection का प्रयोग

Sub-Ordinate Clause:- वह clause जो पूरा अर्थ प्रदान नही करता है, अर्थात अपने अर्थ के लिए Principal clause पर निर्भर करता है, वह Sub-Ordinate Clause कहलाता है. 

Kinds of Sub-Ordinating Conjunctions

अर्थ के दृष्टिकोण से Sub-ordinating Conjunctions को 9 प्रमुख भागों में विभाजित किया गया है. 

  1. Time
  2. Place
  3. Cause or Reason
  4. Condition
  5. Purpose
  6. Result or Effect
  7. Comparison
  8. Concession or Contrast
  9. Extent or Manner

1. Time (समय)

Time Conjunction का प्रयोग समय का महत्व बताने के लिए किया जाता है.  

When, while, before, after, since, as long as, as soon as, as, till, until इत्यादि Time Conjunctions के उदाहरण है.

Example:- 

  • I saw a man of two heads when I was walking.
  • My friend called on me while I was taking tea. 
  • Wait here so long as he is here.
  • Don’t open the door until I tell you to do so. 
  • The train had started before I reached the station.

2. Place (स्थान)

इस Conjunctions का प्रयोग स्थान बताने के लिए किया जाता है. 

Where, whence, wherever इत्यादि Place Conjunctions के उदाहरण है.

Example:- 

  • I know where he lives.
  • Go wherever you like.
  • She never told us whence she had come. 

3. Cause or Reason (कारण)

इस Conjunctions का प्रयोग कारण बताने के लिए किया जाता है.

Because, since, as इत्यादि cause or Reason Conjunctions के उदाहरण है.

Example:- 

  • I like her because she is laborious.
  • I will buy a car since my wife desires it. 
  • Take a rest as you are tired. 

4. Condition (शर्त)

इस Conjunctions का प्रयोग शर्त बताने के लिए किया जाता है.

If, as if, only if, unless, provided, whether इत्यादि condition Conjunctions के उदाहरण है.

Example:- 

  • I will give you freedom if you give me blood.
  • I will enhance your salary provided you work sincerely.
  • You can’t pass unless you word hard.
  • The thief ran fast as if he had been caught red handed.

5. Purpose (उद्देश्य)

इस Conjunctions का प्रयोग उद्देश्य बताने के लिए किया जाता है.

That, so that , in order that, lest, इत्यादि Purpose Conjunctions के उदाहरण है.

Example:- 

  • We eat that we may live.
  • She works hard so that she may paas.
  • We earn money in other that we may be happy.
  • He ran fast lest he should miss the train. 

6. Result or Effect (परिणाम)

इस Conjunctions का प्रयोग परिणाम बताने के लिए किया जाता है.

That, so…. That, such….. That इत्यादि Result Conjunctions के उदाहरण है.

Example:-

  • He worked so much that he fell ill.
  • He ran so slow that he was soon out of the race.
  • Mohan is such a rascal that everybody dislikes him.

7. Comparison (तुलना)

इस Conjunctions का प्रयोग तुलना करने के लिए किया जाता है.

As, as much as, that इत्यादि Comparison Conjunctions के उदाहरण है.

Example:- 

  • This novel is as interesting as that.
  • She is not so noble as her sister.
  • Vineeta is taller than Shweta.
  • I like her as much as I like you. 

8. Concession or Contrast (विरोध)

इस Conjunctions का प्रयोग विरोध का बोध कराने के लिए किया जाता है.

Though / although, however, even if, not withstanding that इत्यादि Concession or Contrast Conjunctions के उदाहरण है.

  • He is not honest though / although he is very rich.
  • You can’t pass however hard you may work.
  • I will support you even if I am in trouble. 

9. Extent or Manner (रीति, विधि)

इस Conjunctions का प्रयोग रीति, विधि का बोध कराने के लिए किया जाता है.

As, as far as, so…. As, as if, according to / as इत्यादि Extent or Manner Conjunctions के उदाहरण है.

Example:- 

  • We reap as we sow.
  • While in Rome, do as the Romans do.
  • She talks as if she were a queen.
  • The boys were punished according as they were guilty.

Conclusion

Conjunctions का प्रयोग समय एवं स्थिति के अनुरूप किया जाता है बहुत सारे conjunctions नियम के विरुद्ध भी कार्य करते है इसलिए उनका विवरण उपर विस्तार से दिया गया है. इस टॉपिक को पढ़ने एवं समझने में कोई परेशानी आ रही हो तो हमें अपना विचार दे हम उसे सही करने का कोशिश करेंगे.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *